James Webb Space Telescope in search of the oldest light in the universe

James Webb Space Telescope in search of the oldest light in the universe - Fooxz

James Webb Space Telescope in search of the oldest light in the universe. Astronomy is one of the oldest branches of science. We have been interested in this vast infinite space since ancient times. Primitive people used to stare in wonder at the starry night sky. They worshiped the sun by placing it in the seat of the god, we now know numerous examples through various archeological researches.

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My goal is very simple. A complete understanding of the universe is my goal. Its variation, its cause and its existence are the key questions here.

Stephen Hawking

About 5000 years before the birth of Jesus Christ, these moon, sun, planets, stars have taught people to think in a new way. For a large period from 5000 BC to 1600 AD, humans had to observe the sky with the naked eye without the aid of any instruments.

Sun was worshiped in ancient Egypt - Fooxz
Sun was worshiped in ancient Egypt.

The late fifteenth century saw the introduction of new research methods in astronomy. Polish astronomer Nicolaus Copernicus presented heliocentric cosmology in the early sixteenth century. While establishing this theory, he had to face a lot of opposition from the then scientific organizations, society and religious institutions.

But the progress of astronomy did not stop because of these oppositions. Scientists are constantly surprising us with new information about various planets, stars, galaxies, comets, etc.

Images taken so far by the James Webb Telescope - Fooxz
Images taken so far by the James Webb Telescope.

July 12, 2022. This day will be bright in the history of human civilization. On this day, the US space agency NASA released the first full color image from the recently discussed James Webb Space Telescope.

On July 12, 2022, US President Joe Biden released one of the first images taken by the James Webb Space Telescope’s Neer infrared camera at the White House. The published image is of the SMACS 0723 galaxy cluster. It is said that the image captures a part of the universe that was about 4.6 billion years ago!

Hubble and James Webb Telescope Differences - Fooxz
SMACS 0723 Galaxy Cluster

Although the image shows the SMACS 0723 galaxy cluster as it was 4.6 billion years ago, some parts of the image show us over 13 billion years ago!

The image is said to be the deepest view of the universe ever seen.

Stephan's Quinet captured by the recently published James Webb, showing large shock-waves and some tidal tails - Fooxz
Stephan’s Quinet captured by the recently published James Webb, showing large shock-waves and some tidal tails.

While releasing the photos taken by James Webb, Biden said, “These photos will remind the world that the United States has the ability to do great things.” And will remind the American people, especially our children, that there is nothing we cannot do.’

NASA’s flagship mission, the James Webb Space Telescope, is actually the successor to the Hubble Telescope. The specialty of the first published historical photo taken by James Webb is that it is a picture of a cluster of galaxies or the Milky Way conference in the distant universe 4.6 billion years ago.

The James Webb Telescope was successfully launched on 25 December 2021 - Fooxz
The James Webb Telescope was successfully launched on 25 December 2021 by an Ariane 5 rocket (Ariane Flight VA256) under the supervision of the French commercial rocket launch company Arianespas from the Guyana Space Center in Kourou, French Guiana, South America.

It is said to be the James Webb Telescope’s first ‘full-colour deep field image’, and the deepest, sharpest and most infrared image of the distant universe in human history.

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A ‘deep field image’ is a picture of a part of the universe taken over a long period of time. In the case of the image taken by the James Webb Telescope, that time was about twelve and a half hours. Astronomers that could not be seen with the help of NASA’s previous Hubble telescope, have now been easily seen with the help of the James Webb telescope. James Webb’s photo is like a speck of dust compared to the vastness of the universe.

Cosmic Cliffs by James Webb. Here are some newborn stars hidden within the Carina Nebula - Fooxz
Cosmic Cliffs by James Webb. Here are some newborn stars hidden within the Carina Nebula.

The James Webb Telescope’s main mission is to uncover the history and properties of the universe’s primordial galaxies. About six months of the planned 10-year mission of this telescope have passed so far.

The brightest and longest spots in this image of the early universe are neighboring stars in the Milky Way galaxy, home to Earth. Apart from this, the other points of light are individual galaxies, stars or planets.

In addition to this image, NASA has released some other images captured by the James Webb Telescope to the media.

When we look at the sun, we see the sun eight minutes and 18 seconds ago. We never see our present day sun. This is because it takes about eight minutes and 18 seconds for light to reach our eyes. Now to put it simply, it took 4.6 billion years for the light to arrive from the cluster of galaxies in this image taken by the James Webb Telescope.

Objects this far away should be blurry, but here in the images from the James Webb Telescope they appear quite clear.

Many galaxies appear slightly bent. This is space-time curvature. According to the General Theory of Relativity, space-time curvature is caused by the gravitational force of the cluster of galaxies at the center of the image.

In addition, the galaxy cluster in the first image published by James Webb has so much total mass that it acts as a gravitational lens. Through that lens, the small points of light further away from the back appear to be bigger. Those points of light are also invisible galaxies, there are also countless planets and satellites.

NASA engineering teams celebrate moments after the second primary mirror wing of the James Webb Telescope unfolds - Fooxz
NASA engineering teams celebrate moments after the second primary mirror wing of the James Webb Telescope unfolds.

Here you can see different colored galaxies or constellations. But the original images are not of such different colors.

Think back to those eighties and nineties. In those days, such DSLR cameras or high-tech smartphones were not readily available. Then if we wanted to take a picture, Dad would take us to a nearby studio.

When we took a photo, we collected a negative of the photo from the dealer. With that negative, when a new picture is needed later, it is washed. This picture is actually a colorless picture, it can be said to be a black and white picture.

When these black and white pictures were published by NASA, how did they become colored? So have the pictures been edited?

In fact, the temperature of the stars located in our universe is different As a result, the light that comes out from them is also different. Different colors of light have different wavelengths. Blue or violet colors have the shortest wavelength, so light of this color travels the shortest distance.

Red light, on the other hand, has the longest wavelength, so red light travels the longest distance.

A spectrum of different wavelengths of light - Fooxz
A spectrum of different wavelengths of light.

The infrared image of the SMACS 0723 galaxy cluster is colored based on this wavelength. The red dots in the image are the furthest away. Similarly objects of other colors are located at different distances from our earth.

Southern Ring Planetary Nebula captured by James Webb. Shown here is a dying star surrounded by a layer of cosmic dust and light - Fooxz
Southern Ring Planetary Nebula captured by James Webb. Shown here is a dying star surrounded by a layer of cosmic dust and light.

The James Webb Telescope was successfully launched on 25 December 2021 by an Ariane 5 rocket under the supervision of French commercial rocket launch company Arianespas from the Guyana Space Center in Kourou, French Guiana, South America.

The mission of the telescope is to study the birth and evolution of galaxies and the formation of stars and planets.

We can call the new picture of the universe sent by it recently as the beginning of a new era of research in astronomy. It is hoped that the James Webb Telescope will open the door to various researches in various fields of astronomy and cosmology in the near future.

It will also be possible to determine the detailed atmospheres of potentially habitable exoplanets. In addition, it will be able to give us new information about other planets, stars, satellites of the solar system.


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